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Problems and gaps in various industries of petroleum and petrochemical equipment manufacturing
Added: 2020-12-07      Views:    

According to estimates by relevant departments, during the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" period, my country's annual petrochemical equipment investment will reach 30 billion yuan, and the total amount will exceed 150 billion yuan. The demand for petrochemical equipment is 2.5 million tons, including 700,000 tons of key equipment. Petrochemical special equipment (reactors, heat exchangers, towers, storage and transportation equipment, heaters, special machinery, etc.) hundreds of thousands of tons, with an investment of 47.5 billion yuan. The National Development and Reform Commission put forward a catalogue of industries, products and technologies that are encouraged to develop, including 28 fields and a total of 526 products, technologies, and some infrastructure and services. Among them, there are three major items in the petroleum and petrochemical field: the development of key manufacturing technologies and equipment manufacturing for large-scale fertilizer and ethylene plants, the manufacturing of large turbocompressors for petrochemical plants, and the manufacturing of petroleum and natural gas exploration and drilling equipment.

The ancients said: "The heavens do not take it, but take the blame." The magnificent development plan of the petroleum and petrochemical industry provides the equipment manufacturing industry with great opportunities, but only to understand its own shortcomings and shortcomings and get the full support of the government. In order to grasp this golden period. Otherwise, you can only watch the fat water flow into the field of outsiders and give the benefits to foreign manufacturers.

Although my country has made great achievements in the localization of major technology and equipment for petroleum and petrochemicals in the past 20 years, it has not fully achieved the expected goal of the "Decision on Speeding up the Development of Major Technology and Equipment" issued by the State Council in 1983. The localization has been carried out for more than 20 years, and the introduction has continued for more than 20 years. The gap with foreign countries has only been widened but not narrowed. Although the output of my country's petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry currently ranks fourth and fifth in the world, the overall scale is only one-fifth that of the United States, one-fourth that of Japan, and one-third that of Germany. There are more than 500 petroleum and petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises in my country, but there is a lack of large-scale backbone enterprises. So far none of them have entered the world's top 500, and the industry has not yet been able to provide complete sets of equipment for large-scale petroleum and petrochemical projects.

Although my country's petroleum and petrochemical major technological equipment manufacturing industry is large in scale, it is "large but not strong". An important factor leading to this problem is the absence of government guidance. Thus widening the gap between my country's petroleum and petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry and foreign countries.

Problems and gaps in petroleum equipment manufacturing industry

Due to the weak government guidance, the development of the petroleum equipment manufacturing industry is in a rather chaotic state.

The number of manufacturing companies is large, small in scale, and lack of concentration. According to incomplete statistics from relevant departments, there are currently more than 300 enterprises above the designated size (enterprises with annual sales income of 5 million yuan and above) in my country's oil drilling special equipment industry, and the number is still increasing. This number is probably more than the total number of oil drilling equipment companies in other countries in the world. The large number of enterprises will inevitably lead to the decentralization of resources, funds and technology, so that no one can scale up.

The market is limited and there are too many monks and porridges, leading to disorderly competition. In view of the shortage of domestic oil resources, the domestic oil drilling equipment market has been very limited. In a limited market, with hundreds of manufacturing companies sharing the pie, it is inevitable that various irregular competition behaviors will appear. Perhaps in recent years, because of the increase in crude oil prices that have driven the development of the domestic upstream industry, this problem has not yet fully emerged. But in terms of exports, as domestic manufacturers are competing to keep prices down, the losses suffered by enterprises and the country are obvious.

The product structure is similar and lacks features. Compared with petrochemical equipment, the number of types of oil drilling equipment is relatively small, and hundreds of companies are engaged in its manufacturing, and the product structure is unavoidable. It is reported that there are currently more than a dozen steel pipe manufacturers for oil and gas operations in my country, with the Baoji Petroleum Steel Pipe Plant among the larger ones. Large-scale drilling rig manufacturers include Baoji Petroleum Machinery Factory and Guanghan Honghua. As for the production of oil pumping equipment, wellhead tools, companies are blooming everywhere. Although everyone is working on the same product, few people have made major breakthroughs in technology.

The product has low technical content and many low-end products. At present, the domestically produced petroleum machinery products have many conventional products, many large-scale goods, few brand-name products, and fewer key products with independent intellectual property rights. To date, there is no shortlist of national brand-name products. Take drilling equipment as an example. Currently, the world has more than 4,300 land oil rigs of various types, with a production capacity of 600-800 rigs per year, while my country has about 1,000 sets of drilling rigs, and the annual output of various drilling rigs can reach 1,200. Taiwan sets, but most drilling rigs are products with relatively backward technology.

Enterprise integration is progressing slowly. In the past, state-owned petroleum equipment manufacturing companies were basically subordinate to the Ministry of Machinery and Petroleum, and some companies were subordinate to local government departments. Now that the Ministry of Machinery and the Ministry of Petroleum no longer exist, the companies that originally belonged to the Ministry of Machinery are now under localized management, and most of the manufacturing companies remaining in the petroleum and petrochemical groups have undergone corporate restructuring. As for the local petroleum machinery manufacturing enterprises, they are basically restructured into private enterprises. Nowadays, my country's petroleum equipment manufacturing enterprises coexist with multiple economic components such as state-owned, private, Sino-foreign joint ventures, and wholly foreign-owned enterprises. The overall layout of the industry is like a "Eastern Zhou Dynasty Chronicles", no one has taken the lead to implement "Combined Vertically and Horizontally". Without integrating the existing manufacturing enterprises, it is impossible to create a large-scale backbone enterprise, to form a manufacturing base that meets future needs, to complete the localization of major petroleum technology and equipment, and to participate in domestic and foreign competition.

Our country implements a government-led market economy. The government should play a leading role in the integration of the manufacturing industry. It cannot be expected that enterprises will gradually integrate spontaneously and gradually according to market operation rules, and achieve the goal of industry-wide integration.

Problems and gaps in petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry

Compared with the petroleum equipment manufacturing industry, the petrochemical equipment manufacturing industry has more problems and gaps.

At present, 60% of the product technology of my country's petrochemical plants comes from abroad, and there are few products and technologies with independent intellectual property rights. Process technology is too dependent on foreign countries, and has rarely formed its own original results for a long time. At the same time, basic theoretical research in the industry is also extremely weak, equipment R&D and manufacturing lag behind the development of petrochemical process technology, and equipment R&D cannot keep up with the needs of construction projects. As for the imported equipment, in general, it is still important to import, ignore digestion, and have no time to absorb and innovate. The research and development of major equipment is still at the stage of imitating Zhaomaohuahu, lacking the ability of secondary development.

Domestic petrochemical equipment manufacturing enterprises also have a market situation of "separation of princes". The enterprises are small in scale, large in number, excessive in general equipment manufacturing capacity, and insufficient in major equipment manufacturing capacity. Equipment research and development and manufacturing have not formed specialization, standardization, and serialization for a long time. The R&D and construction of major equipment are scattered, and no large-scale R&D centers and construction bases have been formed.

In addition, due to the lack of necessary policy support and capital guarantees for the localization of major technical equipment, manufacturing companies have taken too much risk, enthusiasm is difficult to stimulate, and enthusiasm is difficult to mobilize. It is difficult for institutions that preside over the localization of major technical equipment to carry out their work in a sustained, stable and effective manner. The change of the leading organization, and even the substantial lack of it, is one of the important reasons for the slow progress in the localization of major petrochemical equipment.

To meet the needs of the medium and long-term development of my country's petroleum and petrochemical industry, the equipment manufacturing industry must catch up and revitalize it in an all-round way. For comprehensive revitalization, the above-mentioned problems and gaps are exactly the subjects that are facing us first. To overcome these issues, in addition to the rise of the manufacturing industry itself, the unified leadership, unified coordination and effective policy support of the central government are also needed. The localization of equipment is an enterprise action, but it reflects the will of the country and safeguards the national economic security and interests. Therefore, the leading government agency cannot be absent.

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